The GAPS Programme at TNG. LI. Investigating the correlations between transiting system parameters and host chromospheric activity

Claudi, R.; Bruno, G.; Fossati, L.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Maldonado, J.; Benatti, S.; Biazzo, K.; Bignamini, A.; Cabona, L.; Carleo, I.; Danielski, C.; Desidera, S.; Malavolta, L.; Mancini, L.; Montalto, M.; Nardiello, D.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Sozzetti, A.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Ghedina, A.; Lorenzi, V.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. Stellar activity is the most relevant types of astrophysical noise that affect the discovery and characterization of extrasolar planets. On the other hand, the amplitude of stellar activity could hint at an interaction between the star and a close-in giant planet. Progress has been made in recent years in understanding how to deal with stellar activity and search for observational evidence of star-planet interactions.
Aims: The aim of this work is to characterize the chromospheric activity of stars hosting short-period exoplanets by studying the correlations between the chromospheric emission (CE) in the Ca II H&K and the planetary parameters.
Methods: We measured CE in the Ca II H&K lines using more than 1900 high-resolution spectra of a sample composed of 76 targets, observed with the HARPS-N spectrograph between 2012 and 2020. We transformed the fluxes into bolometric- and photospheric-corrected chromospheric emission ratios, R'HK. Furthermore, we completed the sample of hosts digging for data in previous works. Stellar parameters Teff, B-V, and V were retrieved homogeneously from the Gaia DR3. Then, M★, R★, and ages were determined from isochrone fitting. We retrieved planetary data from the literature and catalogs. The search for correlations between the log(R'HK) and planetary parameters have been performed through both Spearman's rank and its statistics as well as the more sophisticated Gaussian mixture model method.
Results: We found that the distribution of log(R'HK) for the transiting planet hosts is different from the distribution of field main-sequence and sub-giant stars. The log(R'HK) of planetary hosts is correlated with planetary parameters proportional to the planetary radius to the power of n (RPn, indicating a common origin for the correlations. The statistical analysis has also highlighted four clusters of host stars with different behavior in terms of their stellar activity with respect to the planetary surface gravity. Some of the host stars have a value of log(R'HK) that is lower than the basal level of activity for main sequence stars. The planets of these systems are very close to filling their Roche lobe, suggesting that they evaporate through hydrodynamic escape under the strong irradiation of the host star, creating shrouds that absorb the core of the chromospheric resonance lines.