Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: Our objective is to examine and validate the camera calibration, derive a photometric correction for creating global albedo maps, and to interpret the photometric modeling results to characterize the surface of Ryugu.
Methods: We observed (162173) Ryugu with the Gemini-South telescope, and combined these measurements with other published ground-based observations of the asteroid. The ground-based observations were compared with the data obtained by ONC-T in order to validate the radiometric calibration mutually. We used a combination of the Hapke disk-integrated and disk-resolved model equations to simultaneously analyze the combined ground- and spacecraft-based data.
Results: The average spectrum of Ryugu was classified as Cb-type following the SMASSII taxonomy and C/F-type following the Tholen taxonomy based on spacecraft observations. We derived Hapke model parameters for all seven color filters, which allowed us to photometrically correct images to within an error of <10% for ~80% of the image pixels used in the modeling effort. Using this model, we derived a geometric albedo of 4.0 ± 0.5% (v band) for Ryugu. The average reflectance factor at the standard illumination condition was 1.87 ± 0.14% in the v band. Moreover we measured a phase reddening of (2.0 ± 0.7) × 10-3 μm-1 deg-1 for Ryugu, similar to that observed for the asteroid (101955) Bennu.
Conclusions: The global color map showed that the general trend was for darker regions to also be redder regions, however there were some distinct exceptions to this trend. For example, Otohime Saxum was bright and red while Kibidango crater was dark and blue. The darkness and flatness of Ryugu's reflectance might be caused by a high abundance of organic materials.