The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Radial-velocity variations of active stars in visual-channel spectra

Tal-Or, L.; Zechmeister, M.; Reiners, A.; Jeffers, S. V.; Schöfer, P.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Caballero, J. A.; Aceituno, J. et al.
Referencia bibliográfica

Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 614, id.A122, 17 pp.

Fecha de publicación:
6
2018
Descripción
Context. Previous simulations predicted the activity-induced radial-velocity (RV) variations of M dwarfs to range from 1 cm s-1 to 1 km s-1, depending on various stellar and activity parameters. Aims: We investigate the observed relations between RVs, stellar activity, and stellar parameters of M dwarfs by analyzing CARMENES high-resolution visual-channel spectra (0.5-1μm), which were taken within the CARMENES RV planet survey during its first 20 months of operation. Methods: During this time, 287 of the CARMENES-sample stars were observed at least five times. From each spectrum we derived a relative RV and a measure of chromospheric Hα emission. In addition, we estimated the chromatic index (CRX) of each spectrum, which is a measure of the RV wavelength dependence. Results: Despite having a median number of only 11 measurements per star, we show that the RV variations of the stars with RV scatter of >10 m s-1 and a projected rotation velocity v sin i > 2 km s-1 are caused mainly by activity. We name these stars "active RV-loud stars" and find their occurrence to increase with spectral type: from 3% for early-type M dwarfs (M0.0-2.5 V) through 30% for mid-type M dwarfs (M3.0-5.5 V) to >50% for late-type M dwarfs (M6.0-9.0 V). Their RV-scatter amplitude is found to be correlated mainly with v sin i. For about half of the stars, we also find a linear RV-CRX anticorrelation, which indicates that their activity-induced RV scatter is lower at longer wavelengths. For most of them we can exclude a linear correlation between RV and Hα emission. Conclusions: Our results are in agreement with simulated activity-induced RV variations in M dwarfs. The RV variations of most active RV-loud M dwarfs are likely to be caused by dark spots on their surfaces, which move in and out of view as the stars rotate. The data presented in Figs. 5 and A.1 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A122
Proyectos relacionados
Descubrimiento de un sistema de supertierras orbitando la estrella HD 176986 con aproximadamente 5.7 and 9.2 masas de la Tierra
Estrellas de Baja Masa, Enanas Marrones y Planetas

Se investigan los procesos que conducen a la formación de estrellas de baja masa, enanas marrones y exoplanetas y caracterizar las propiedades físicas de estos astros en varias etapas evolutivas. Las estrellas de muy baja masa y las enanas marrones son probablemente los objetos más numerosos de nuestra Galaxia, pero no por ello están

Rafael
Rebolo López
Image withthe projects' name
Exoplanetas y Astrobiología

La búsqueda de vida en el Universo se ha visto impulsada por los recientes descubrimientos de planetas alrededor de otras estrellas (los llamados exoplanetas), convirtiéndose en uno de los campos más activos dentro de la Astrofísica moderna. En los últimos años los descubrimientos cada vez más numerosos de nuevos exoplanetas y los últimos avances

Enric
Pallé Bago