Exoplanetas y Astrobiología

    General
    Descripción

    La búsqueda de vida en el Universo se ha visto impulsada por los recientes descubrimientos de planetas alrededor de otras estrellas (los llamados exoplanetas), convirtiéndose en uno de los campos más activos dentro de la Astrofísica moderna. En los últimos años los descubrimientos cada vez más numerosos de nuevos exoplanetas y los últimos avances en el estudio de sus atmósferas no sólo están dándonos valiosa nueva información sobre sus propiedades físicas, sino que nos están permitiendo además poner las propiedades de los planetas de nuestro Sistema Solar dentro un contexto más global. El campo esta acercándose al importante descubrimiento de los primeros planetas potencialmente habitables, impulsando estudios más detallados de estos planetas. Con el lanzamiento de las nuevas misiones como JWST, CHEOPS, TESS, ARIEL o PLATO, al campo de exoplanetas se le plantea un futuro muy excitante.

    Es por esta razon que este campo se ayuda de y, a su vez motiva, el desarrollo de instrumentación cada vez más sensible y estable tanto para telescopios de tierra como para las misiones espaciales. Dos frentes para los que nuestro grupo esta especialmente preparado. Por un lado, durante los ultimos años hemos desarrollado tecnicas de observacion y reduccion de transitos de exoplanetas para los telescopios del ORM, siendo el nuestro uno de los grupos mas productivos en la explotacion de GTC. Por otro lado, todas las misiones espaciales ESA (presentes y futuras) relacionadas con exoplanetas cuentan con uno o varios de los componentes del proyecto como CoIs.

    En el marco de este proyecto, pretendemos que los investigadores del IAC mantengan una situación aventajada con la explotación de OSIRIS y EMIR, instrumentos de primera luz de GTC, y participen en la construcción, comisionado y operación de nuevos instrumentos, como el espectrografo óptico de alta resolución HORUS en el GTC. La explotacion de la fotometria y espectroscopia de transitos con LIRIS en el WHT es tambien uno de nuestros principales intereses, especialmente en preparacion de la instalacion en 2015 del instrumento EMIR en el GTC.

    En resumen, el proyecto "Exoplanetas y Astrobiologia" se centrará entorno a estas cuatro lineas principales de actuacion:

    1) Caracterización de las propiedades fisicas y atmosfericas de exoplanetas (GTC, WHT, HARPSN, CARMENES, ESPRESSO, ARIEL etc.)

    2) Búsquedas y confirmacion de exoplanetas por transitos (CoRoT, Kepler, K2, CHEOPS, XO, LCOGT, WFC, PLATO, etc.)

    3) Busquedas/ confirmacion de exoplanetas por velocidad radial (HARPSN, HORUS, LCOGT, SONG, CARMENES)

    4) Astrobiología

    Investigador principal
    Personal del proyecto
    1. Deteccion de He en la atmosfera de un exoplaneta por primera vez, publicado en Science.
    2. Deteccion de un planeta entorno a la estrella de Barnard, publicado en Nature
    3. Deteccion de los primeros planetas del la mision TESS, con varios articulos de impacto
    4. Descubrimiento de rasgos de Na y Halpha en el espectro de KELT-20b con el TNG
    5. Publicación del Handbook of Exoplanets, la obra de referencia más extenso en el campo de los exoplanetas. Este Manual fue editado por miembros de nuestro grupo e incluye contribuciones de unos 300 expertos en todo el mundo, incluidos 12 miembros de IAC.

    Publicaciones relacionadas

    • Atmospheric characterization of terrestrial exoplanets in the mid-infrared: biosignatures, habitability, and diversity

      Exoplanet science is one of the most thriving fields of modern astrophysics. A major goal is the atmospheric characterization of dozens of small, terrestrial exoplanets in order to search for signatures in their atmospheres that indicate biological activity, assess their ability to provide conditions for life as we know it, and investigate their

      Quanz, Sascha P. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      9
      2021
    • Occulter to earth: prospects for studying earth-like planets with the E-ELT and a space-based occulter

      Direct detection and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars is a core task for evaluating the prevalence of habitability and life in the Universe. Here, we discuss a promising option for achieving this goal, which is based on placing an occulter in orbit and having it project its shadow onto the E-ELT at the surface of Earth

      Janson, Markus et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      8
      2021
    • Detecting life outside our solar system with a large high-contrast-imaging mission

      In this White Paper, which was submitted in response to the European Space Agency (ESA) Voyage 2050 Call, we recommend the ESA plays a proactive role in developing a global collaborative effort to construct a large high-contrast imaging space telescope, e.g. as currently under study by NASA. Such a mission will be needed to characterize a sizable

      Snellen, Ignas A. G. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      10
      2021
    • The Ariel 0.6 - 7.8 μm stellar limb-darkening coefficients

      We provide here tables of stellar limb-darkening coefficients (LDCs) for the Ariel ESA M4 space mission. These tables include LDCs corresponding to different wavelength bins and white bands for the NIRSpec, AIRS-Ch0 and AIRS-Ch1 spectrographs, and those corresponding to the VISPhot, FGS1 and FGS2 photometers. The LDCs are calculated with the open

      Morello, Giuseppe et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      4
      2021
    • TOI-2285b: A 1.7 Earth-radius planet near the habitable zone around a nearby M dwarf

      We report the discovery of TOI-2285b, a sub-Neptune-sized planet transiting a nearby (42 pc) M dwarf with a period of 27.3 d. We identified the transit signal from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite photometric data, which we confirmed with ground-based photometric observations using the multiband imagers MuSCAT2 and MuSCAT3. Combining these

      Fukui, Akihiko et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Rapid contraction of giant planets orbiting the 20-million-year-old star V1298 Tau

      Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years1,2. These theoretical expectations remain untested so far as the detection and characterization of very young planets is extremely

      Suárez Mascareño, A. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Rapid contraction of giant planets orbiting the 20-million-year-old star V1298 Tau

      Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years1,2. These theoretical expectations remain untested so far as the detection and characterization of very young planets is extremely

      Suárez Mascareño, A. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • A compositional link between rocky exoplanets and their host stars

      Stars and planets both form by accreting material from a surrounding disk. Because they grow from the same material, theory predicts that there should be a relationship between their compositions. In this study, we search for a compositional link between rocky exoplanets and their host stars. We estimate the iron-mass fraction of rocky exoplanets

      Adibekyan, Vardan et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      10
      2021
    • Orbital period refinement of CoRoT planets with TESS observations

      CoRoT was the first space mission dedicated to exoplanet detection. Operational between 2007 and 2012, this mission discovered 37 transiting planets, including CoRoT-7b, the first terrestrial exoplanet with a measured size. The precision of the published transit ephemeris of most of these planets has been limited by the relative short durations of

      Klagyivik, Peter et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • GTC/CanariCam Deep Mid-infrared Imaging Survey of Northern Stars within 5 pc

      In this work we present the results of a direct imaging survey for brown dwarf companions around the nearest stars at the mid-infrared 10 micron range (λ c = 8.7 μm, Δλ = 1.1 μm) using the CanariCam instrument on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We imaged the 25 nearest stellar systems within 5 pc of the Sun at declinations δ > -25° (at

      Gauza, Bartosz et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Probing the atmosphere of WASP-69 b with low- and high-resolution transmission spectroscopy

      Consideration of both low- and high-resolution transmission spectroscopy is key for obtaining a comprehensive picture of exoplanet atmospheres. In studies of transmission spectra, the continuum information is well established with low-resolution spectra, while the shapes of individual lines are best constrained with high-resolution observations. In

      Khalafinejad, S. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • TOI-1201 b: A mini-Neptune transiting a bright and moderately young M dwarf

      We present the discovery of a transiting mini-Neptune around TOI-1201, a relatively bright and moderately young early M dwarf (J ≈ 9.5 mag, ~600-800 Myr) in an equal-mass ~8 arcsecond-wide binary system, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, along with follow-up transit observations. With an orbital period of 2.49 d, TOI-1201 b

      Kossakowski, D. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • GJ 367b: A dense, ultrashort-period sub-Earth planet transiting a nearby red dwarf star

      Ultrashort-period (USP) exoplanets have orbital periods shorter than 1 day. Precise masses and radii of USP exoplanets could provide constraints on their unknown formation and evolution processes. We report the detection and characterization of the USP planet GJ 367b using high-precision photometry and radial velocity observations. GJ 367b orbits a

      Lam, Kristine W. F. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Evidence for stellar contamination in the transmission spectra of HAT-P-12b

      Context. Transmission spectroscopy characterizes the wavelength dependence of transit depth, revealing atmospheric absorption features in planetary terminator regions. In this context, different optical transmission spectra of HAT-P-12b reported in previous studies exhibited discrepant atmospheric features (e.g., Rayleigh scattering and alkali

      Jiang, C. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Diving Beneath the Sea of Stellar Activity: Chromatic Radial Velocities of the Young AU Mic Planetary System

      We present updated radial-velocity (RV) analyses of the AU Mic system. AU Mic is a young (22 Myr) early-M dwarf known to host two transiting planets-P b ~ 8.46 days, ${R}_{b}={4.38}_{-0.18}^{+0.18}\ {R}_{\oplus }$ , P c ~ 18.86 days, ${R}_{c}={3.51}_{-0.16}^{+0.16}\ {R}_{\oplus }$ . With visible RVs from Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M

      Cale, Bryson L. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • TOI-1431b/MASCARA-5b: A Highly Irradiated Ultrahot Jupiter Orbiting One of the Hottest and Brightest Known Exoplanet Host Stars

      We present the discovery of a highly irradiated and moderately inflated ultrahot Jupiter, TOI-1431b/MASCARA-5 b (HD 201033b), first detected by NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission (TESS) and the Multi-site All-Sky Camera (MASCARA). The signal was established to be of planetary origin through radial velocity measurements obtained

      Addison, Brett C. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • TOI-2109: An Ultrahot Gas Giant on a 16 hr Orbit

      We report the discovery of an ultrahot Jupiter with an extremely short orbital period of 0.67247414 ± 0.00000028 days (~16 hr). The 1.347 ± 0.047 R Jup planet, initially identified by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, orbits TOI-2109 (TIC 392476080)-a T eff ~ 6500 K F-type star with a mass of 1.447 ± 0.077 M ☉, a radius of 1

      Wong, Ian et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Ammonia-methane ratios from H-band near-infrared spectra of late-T and Y dwarfs

      Aims: Our goals are to investigate the relative absorption strengths of ammonia and methane using low-resolution H-band (1.5−1.7 microns) spectra obtained in the laboratory and compared with observational spectra of late-T and Y dwarfs, and to estimate what can be expected from the wide-angle low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey that

      Martín, E. L. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      11
      2021
    • TIC 172900988: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet Detected in One Sector of TESS Data

      We report the first discovery of a transiting circumbinary planet detected from a single sector of Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) data. During Sector 21, the planet TIC 172900988b transited the primary star and then five days later it transited the secondary star. The binary is itself eclipsing, with a period P ≍ 19.7 days and an

      Kostov, Veselin B. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021
    • Wolf 503 b: Characterization of a Sub-Neptune Orbiting a Metal-poor K Dwarf

      Using radial-velocity measurements from four instruments, we report the mass and density of a 2.043 ±0.069 R⊕ sub-Neptune orbiting the quiet K-dwarf Wolf 503 (HIP 67285). In addition, we present improved orbital and transit parameters by analyzing previously unused short-cadence K2 campaign 17 photometry and conduct a joint radial-velocity-transit

      Polanski, Alex S. et al.

      Fecha de publicación:

      12
      2021

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