Evidence for Low-level Dynamical Excitation in Near-resonant Exoplanet Systems

Rice, Malena; Wang, Xian-Yu; Wang, Songhu; Shporer, Avi; Barkaoui, Khalid; Brahm, Rafael; Collins, Karen A.; Jordán, Andrés; Lowson, Nataliea; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen; Teske, Johanna K.; Osip, David; Collins, Kevin I.; Murgas, Felipe; Boyle, Gavin; Pozuelos, Francisco J.; Timmermans, Mathilde; Jehin, Emmanuel; Gillon, Michaël
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The Astronomical Journal

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The geometries of near-resonant planetary systems offer a relatively pristine window into the initial conditions of exoplanet systems. Given that near-resonant systems have likely experienced minimal dynamical disruptions, the spin-orbit orientations of these systems inform the typical outcomes of quiescent planet formation, as well as the primordial stellar obliquity distribution. However, few measurements have been made to constrain the spin-orbit orientations of near-resonant systems. We present a Rossiter-McLaughlin measurement of the near-resonant warm Jupiter TOI-2202 b, obtained using the Carnegie Planet Finder Spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope. This is the eighth result from the Stellar Obliquities in Long-period Exoplanet Systems survey. We derive a sky-projected 2D spin-orbit angle $\lambda ={26}_{-15}^{+12}{^\circ} $ and a 3D spin-orbit angle $\psi ={31}_{-11}^{+13}{^\circ} $ , finding that TOI-2202 b-the most massive near-resonant exoplanet with a 3D spin-orbit constraint to date-likely deviates from exact alignment with the host star's equator. Incorporating the full census of spin-orbit measurements for near-resonant systems, we demonstrate that the current set of near-resonant systems with period ratios P 2/P 1 ≲ 4 is generally consistent with a quiescent formation pathway, with some room for low-level (≲20°) protoplanetary disk misalignments or post-disk-dispersal spin-orbit excitation. Our result constitutes the first population-wide analysis of spin-orbit geometries for near-resonant planetary systems. * This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
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