The Challenges of Observing, Calibrating, and Modeling Stellar Spectral Energy Distributions

Allende Prieto, Carlos
Bibliographical reference

Radiative Signatures from the Cosmos, ASP Conference Series, Vol. 519, Proceedings of a conference held 23-26 October, 2018 at Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Edited by K. Werner, C. Stehle, T. Rauch, and T. Lanz. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2019, p.3

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While optical and quantum efficiency are on the rise, and spectrographs becoming massively multiplexed, measuring spectral energy distributions of astronomical sources with accuracy remains a challenge. In addition to atmospheric refraction, extinction, variability, and limited apertures of instrument entrance slits and optical fibers, accurate calibration is hampered by issues such as a limited choice of reliable standard stars. Modeling stellar spectral energy distributions has seen good progress, but some weaknesses survive, especially for late-type stars. This article provides an overview of these matters and discusses observation, calibration, and modeling strategies for future large spectroscopic surveys.