A detailed study of the barium central star of the planetary nebula Abell 70

Jones, David; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Brown, Alex J.; Zak, Jiri; Hume, George; Munday, James; Miszalski, Brent
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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We present a detailed study of the barium star at the heart of the planetary nebula Abell 70. Time-series photometry obtained over a period of more than 10 yr demonstrates that the barium-contaminated companion is a rapid rotator with temporal variability due to spots. The amplitude and phasing of the photometric variability change abruptly; however, there is no evidence for a change in the rotation period (P = 2.06 d) over the course of the observations. The co-addition of 17 high-resolution spectra obtained with Ultraviolet and Visual Échelle Spectrograph mounted on the Very Large Telescope allows us to measure the physical and chemical properties of the companion, confirming it to be a chromospherically active, late G-type sub-giant with more than +1 dex of barium enhancement. We find no evidence of radial velocity variability in the spectra, obtained over the course of approximately 130 d with a single additional point some 8 yr later, with the radial velocities of all epochs approximately -10 km s -1 from the previously measured systemic velocity of the nebula. This is perhaps indicative that the binary has a relatively long period (P ≳ 2 yr) and high eccentricity (e ≳ 0.3), and that all the observations were taken around radial velocity minimum. However, unless the binary orbital plane is not aligned with the waist of the nebula or the systemic velocity of the binary is not equal to the literature value for the nebula, this would imply an unfeasibly large mass for the nebular progenitor.
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