TOI-3235 b: A Transiting Giant Planet around an M4 Dwarf Star

Winn, Joshua N.; Vanderspek, Roland; Vanderburg, Andrew; Timmermans, Mathilde; Srdoc, Gregor; Striegel, Stephanie; Seager, S.; Ricker, George R.; Schwarz, Richard P.; Pozuelos, Francisco J.; Murgas, Felipe; Latham, David W.; Moldovan, Dan; Jenkins, Jon M.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Horne, Keith; Goeke, Robert F.; Gillon, Michaël; Ghachoui, Mourad; Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Charbonneau, David; Cointepas, Marion; Bonfils, Xavier; Bouchy, François; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Barkaoui, Khalid; Almenara, Jose Manuel; Henning, Th.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Brahm, R.; Bryant, E. M.; Jordán, Andrés; Hobson, Melissa J.
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The Astrophysical Journal

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We present the discovery of TOI-3235 b, a short-period Jupiter orbiting an M dwarf with a stellar mass close to the critical mass at which stars transition from partially to fully convective. TOI-3235 b was first identified as a candidate from TESS photometry and confirmed with radial velocities from ESPRESSO and ground-based photometry from HATSouth, MEarth-South, TRAPPIST-South, LCOGT, and ExTrA. We find that the planet has a mass of 0.665 ± 0.025 M J and a radius of 1.017 ± 0.044 R J. It orbits close to its host star, with an orbital period of 2.5926 days but has an equilibrium temperature of ≈ 604 K, well below the expected threshold for radius inflation of hot Jupiters. The host star has a mass of 0.3939 ± 0.0030 M ⊙, a radius of 0.3697 ± 0.0018 R ⊙, an effective temperature of 3389 K, and a J-band magnitude of 11.706 ± 0.025. Current planet formation models do not predict the existence of gas giants such as TOI-3235 b around such low-mass stars. With a high transmission spectroscopy metric, TOI-3235 b is one of the best-suited giants orbiting M dwarfs for atmospheric characterization.