The European Solar Telescope

Quintero Noda, C.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Khomenko, E.; Jurčák, J.; Leenaarts, J.; Kuckein, C.; González Manrique, S. J.; Gunár, S.; Nelson, C. J.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Tziotziou, K.; Tsiropoula, G.; Aulanier, G.; Aboudarham, J.; Allegri, D.; Alsina Ballester, E.; Amans, J. P.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Bailén, F. J.; Balaguer, M.; Baldini, V.; Balthasar, H.; Barata, T.; Barczynski, K.; Barreto Cabrera, M.; Baur, A.; Béchet, C.; Beck, C.; Belío-Asín, M.; Bello-González, N.; Belluzzi, L.; Bentley, R. D.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Berghmans, D.; Berlicki, A.; Berrilli, F.; Berkefeld, T.; Bettonvil, F.; Bianda, M.; Bienes Pérez, J.; Bonaque-González, S.; Brajša, R.; Bommier, V.; Bourdin, P. -A.; Burgos Martín, J.; Calchetti, D.; Calcines, A.; Calvo Tovar, J.; Campbell, R. J.; Carballo-Martín, Y.; Carbone, V.; Carlin, E. S.; Carlsson, M.; Castro López, J.; Cavaller, L.; Cavallini, F.; Cauzzi, G.; Cecconi, M.; Chulani, H. M.; Cirami, R.; Consolini, G.; Coretti, I.; Cosentino, R.; Cózar-Castellano, J.; Dalmasse, K.; Danilovic, S.; De Juan Ovelar, M.; Del Moro, D.; del Pino Alemán, T.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Denker, C.; Dhara, S. K.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Díaz Baso, C. J.; Diercke, A.; Dineva, E.; Díaz-García, J. J.; Doerr, H. -P.; Doyle, G.; Erdelyi, R.; Ermolli, I.; Escobar Rodríguez, A.; Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Faurobert, M.; Felipe, T.; Feller, A.; Feijoo Amoedo, N.; Femenía Castellá, B.; Fernandes, J.; Ferro Rodríguez, I.; Figueroa, I.; Fletcher, L.; Franco Ordovas, A.; Gafeira, R.; Gardenghi, R.; Gelly, B.; Giorgi, F.; Gisler, D. et al.
Bibliographical reference

Astronomy and Astrophysics

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The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project aimed at studying the magnetic connectivity of the solar atmosphere, from the deep photosphere to the upper chromosphere. Its design combines the knowledge and expertise gathered by the European solar physics community during the construction and operation of state-of-the-art solar telescopes operating in visible and near-infrared wavelengths: the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope, the German Vacuum Tower Telescope and GREGOR, the French Télescope Héliographique pour l'Étude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires, and the Dutch Open Telescope. With its 4.2 m primary mirror and an open configuration, EST will become the most powerful European ground-based facility to study the Sun in the coming decades in the visible and near-infrared bands. EST uses the most innovative technological advances: the first adaptive secondary mirror ever used in a solar telescope, a complex multi-conjugate adaptive optics with deformable mirrors that form part of the optical design in a natural way, a polarimetrically compensated telescope design that eliminates the complex temporal variation and wavelength dependence of the telescope Mueller matrix, and an instrument suite containing several (etalon-based) tunable imaging spectropolarimeters and several integral field unit spectropolarimeters. This publication summarises some fundamental science questions that can be addressed with the telescope, together with a complete description of its major subsystems.
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