High-resolution Emission Spectroscopy of the Ultrahot Jupiter KELT-9b: Little Variation in Day- and Nightside Emission Line Contrasts

Ridden-Harper, Andrew; de Mooij, Ernst; Jayawardhana, Ray; Gibson, Neale; Karjalainen, Raine; Karjalainen, Marie
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The Astronomical Journal

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The transmission spectrum of the ultrahot Jupiter KELT-9b (T eq ~ 4000 K) exhibits absorption by several metal species. We searched for atomic and molecular lines in its emission spectrum by observing partial phase curves with the Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs (R ~ 80,000-95,000). We find evidence for emission by Si I in the atmosphere of KELT-9b for the first time. Additionally we find evidence for emission by Mg I and Ca II, which were previously detected in transmission, and confirmed earlier detections of Fe I emission. Conversely, we find no evidence for dayside emission from Al I, Ca I, Cr I, FeH, Fe II, K I, Li I, Mg II, Na I, OH, Ti I, TiO, V I, V II, VO, and Y I. By employing likelihood mapping, we find indications of there being little variation in emission line contrast between the day- and nightsides-suggesting that KELT-9b may harbor iron emission on its nightside. Our results demonstrate that high-resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy can provide valuable insights into exoplanet atmospheres.