Arch Filament Systems and their evolution through the layers of the solar atmosphere

Sergio Javier Gonzalez Manrique
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Emerging flux regions (EFRs) are seen as magnetic concentrations in the photosphere of the Sun. From a theoretical point of view, the EFRs are formed in the convection zone and then emerge because of magnetic buoyancy (Parker instability) to the solar surface. During the formation process of EFRs, merging and cancellation of different polarities occur, leading to various configurations of the magnetic field. Often, EFRs are visible in the chromosphere in form of magnetic loops loaded with plasma, which are often called “cool loops” when seen in the chromosphere along with dark fibrils and they can reach up to the corona. Nowadays, we refer to them as an arch filament system (AFS) which connects two different polarities.  The AFSs are commonly observed in several chromospheric spectral lines. A suitable spectral line to investigate chromospheric features and particularly AFSs is the He I 10830 Å triplet. The new generation of solar telescopes and instruments such EST and DKIST, will allow us to record very high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution observations necessary to investigate the dynamics, magnetic field, and characteristics of AFSs. These observations will help us to answer many open questions related to flux emergence such: (1) What are the observational consequences of the emerging flux? (2) How do EFRs evolve with time in the different layers of the solar atmosphere and how are these layers linked? (3) Is it possible to measure the height difference between the photosphere and the chromosphere connected by the legs of the AFSs?