The CAVITY project: The spatially resolved stellar population properties of galaxies in voids

Conrado, Ana M.; González Delgado, Rosa M.; García-Benito, Rubén; Pérez, Isabel; Verley, Simon; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; Sánchez-Menguiano, Laura; Duarte Puertas, Salvador; Jiménez, Andoni; Domínguez-Gómez, Jesús; Espada, Daniel; Argudo-Fernández, María; Alcázar-Laynez, Manuel; Blázquez-Calero, Guillermo; Bidaran, Bahar; Zurita, Almudena; Peletier, Reynier; Torres-Ríos, Gloria; Florido, Estrella; Rodríguez Martínez, Mónica; del Moral-Castro, Ignacio; van de Weygaert, Rien; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Lugo-Aranda, Alejandra Z.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Courtois, Hélène M.; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Román, Javier; Aceituno, Jesús
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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The Universe is shaped as a web-like structure, formed by clusters, filaments, and walls that leave large low number-density volumes in between named voids. Galaxies in voids have been found to be of a later type, bluer, less massive, and to have a slower evolution than galaxies in denser environments (filaments and walls). However, the effect of the void environment on their stellar population properties is still unclear. We aim to address this question using 118 optical integral field unit datacubes from the Calar Alto Void Integral-field Treasury surveY (CAVITY), observed with the PMAS/PPaK spectrograph at the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almería, Spain). We fitted their spectra from 3750 Å to 7000 Å with the non-parametric full spectral fitting code STARLIGHT to estimate their stellar population properties: stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, age, star formation rate (SFR), and specific star formation rate (sSFR). We analysed the results through the global properties, assessing the behaviour of the whole galaxy, and the spatially resolved information, by obtaining the radial profiles from the 2D maps up to the 2 half-light radius of each stellar population property. The results were examined with respect to their morphological type and stellar mass. Then, we compared them with a control sample of galaxies in filaments and walls, selected from the CALIFA survey and analysed following the same procedure. To make a fair comparison between the samples, we selected a twin filament galaxy for each void galaxy of the same morphological type and closest stellar mass, to match the void galaxy sample as much as possible in morphology and mass. Key findings from our global and spatially resolved analysis include void galaxies having a slightly higher half-light radius (HLR), lower stellar mass surface density, and younger ages across all morphological types, and slightly elevated SFR and sSFR (only significant enough for Sas). Many of these differences appear in the outer parts of spiral galaxies (HLR > 1), where discs are younger and exhibit a higher sSFR compared to galaxies in filaments and walls, indicative of less evolved discs. This trend is also found for early-type spirals, suggesting a slower transition from star-forming to quiescent states in voids. Our analysis indicates that void galaxies, influenced by their surroundings, undergo a more gradual evolution, especially in their outer regions, with a more pronounced effect for low-mass galaxies. We find that below a certain mass threshold, environmental processes play a more influential role in galactic evolution.