The GAPS Programme at TNG. LIV. A He I survey of close-in giant planets hosted by M-K dwarf stars with GIANO-B

Guilluy, G.; D'Arpa, M. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Spinelli, R.; Biassoni, F.; Fossati, L.; Maggio, A.; Giacobbe, P.; Lanza, A. F.; Sozzetti, A.; Borsa, F.; Rainer, M.; Micela, G.; Affer, L.; Andreuzzi, G.; Bignamini, A.; Boschin, W.; Carleo, I.; Cecconi, M.; Desidera, S.; Fardella, V.; Ghedina, A.; Mantovan, G.; Mancini, L.; Nascimbeni, V.; Knapic, C.; Pedani, M.; Petralia, A.; Pino, L.; Scandariato, G.; Sicilia, D.; Stangret, M.; Zingales, T.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. Atmospheric escape plays a fundamental role in shaping the properties of exoplanets. The metastable near-infrared (nIR) helium triplet at 1083.3 nm (He I) is a powerful proxy of extended and evaporating atmospheres.
Aims: We used the GIARPS (GIANO-B + HARPS-N) observing mode of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo to search for He I absorption in the upper atmospheres of five close-in giant planets hosted by the K and M dwarf stars of our sample, namely WASP-69 b, WASP-107 b, HAT-P-11 b, GJ 436 b, and GJ 3470 b.
Methods: We focused our analysis on the nIR He I triplet, performing high-resolution transmission spectroscopy by comparing the in-transit and out-of-transit observations. In instances where nightly variability in the He I absorption signal was identified, we investigated the potential influence of stellar magnetic activity on the planetary absorption signal by searching for variations in the Hα transmission spectrum.
Results: We spectrally resolve the He I triplet and confirm the published detections for WASP-69 b (3.91 ± 0.22%, 17.6σ), WASP-107 b (8.17−0.76+0.80%, 10.5σ), HAT-P-11 b (1.36 ± 0.17%, 8.0σ), and GJ 3470 b (1.75−0.36+0.39%, 4.7σ). We do not find evidence of extra absorption for GJ 436 b. We observe night-to-night variations in the He I absorption signal for WASP-69 b, associated with variability in Hα, which likely indicates the influence of pseudo-signals related to stellar activity. Additionally, we find that the He I signal of GJ 3470 b originates from a single transit observation, thereby corroborating the discrepancies found in the existing literature. An inspection of the Hα line reveals an absorption signal during the same transit event.
Conclusions: By combining our findings with previous analyses of GIANO-B He I measurements of planets orbiting K dwarfs, we explore potential trends with planetary and stellar parameters that are thought to affect the absorption of metastable He I. Our analysis is unable to identify clear patterns, thus emphasising the necessity for additional measurements and the exploration of potential additional parameters that may be important in controlling He I absorption in planetary upper atmospheres.

Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Funda-cion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the programme Global Architecture of the Planetary Systems (GAPS).