The GAPS Programme at TNG. LV. Multiple molecular species in the atmosphere of HAT-P-11 b and review of the HAT-P-11 planetary system

Basilicata, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Scandariato, G.; Brogi, M.; Singh, V.; Di Paola, A.; Mancini, L.; Sozzetti, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Cubillos, P. E.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; Biazzo, K.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Cabona, L.; Carleo, I.; Ghedina, A.; Guilluy, G.; Maggio, A.; Mainella, G.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Nardiello, D.; Pedani, M.; Pino, L.; Poretti, E.; Southworth, J.; Stangret, M.; Turrini, D.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. The atmospheric characterisation of hot and warm Neptune-size exoplanets is challenging mainly due to their relatively small radius and atmospheric scale height, which reduce the amplitude of atmospheric spectral features. The warm-Neptune HAT-P-11 b is a remarkable target for atmospheric characterisation because of the large brightness of its host star (V = 9.46 mag; H = 7.13 mag).
Aims: The aims of this work are to review the main physical and architectural properties of the HAT-P-11 planetary system, and to probe the presence of eight molecular species in the atmosphere of HAT-P-11 b through near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution transmission spectroscopy.
Methods: We reviewed the physical and architectural properties of the HAT-P-11 planetary system by analysing transits and occultations of HAT-P-11 b from the Kepler data set as well as HIRES at Keck archival radial-velocity data. We modelled the latter with Gaussian-process regression and a combined quasi-periodic and squared-exponential kernel to account for stellar variations on both (short-term) rotation and (long-term) activity-cycle timescales. In order to probe the atmospheric composition of HAT-P-11 b, we observed four transits of this target with the NIR GIANO-B at TNG spectrograph and cross-correlated the data with template atmospheric transmission spectra.
Results: We find that the long-period radial-velocity signal previously attributed to the HAT-P-11 c planet (P ~ 9.3 yr; Mp sin i ~ 1.6 MJ; e ~ 0.6) is more likely due to the stellar magnetic activity cycle. Nonetheless, the HIPPARCOS-Gaia difference in the proper-motion anomaly suggests that an outer-bound companion might still exist. For HAT-P-11 b, we measure a radius of Rp = 0.4466 ± 0.0059 RJ, a mass of Mp = 0.0787 ± 0.0048 MJ, a bulk density of ρp = 1.172 ± 0.085 g cm−3, and an orbital eccentricity of e = 0.2577−0.0025+0.0033. These values are compatible with those from the literature. Probing its atmosphere, we detect the presence of two molecular species, H2O and NH3, with a S/N of 5.1 and 5.3, and a significance of 3.4 σ and 5.0 σ, respectively. We also tentatively detect the presence of CO2 and CH4, with a S/N of 3.0 and 4.8, and a significance of 3.2 σ and 2.6 σ, respectively.
Conclusions: We revisit the HAT-P-11 planetary system, confirm the presence of H2O, and report the detection of NH3 in the atmosphere of HAT-P-11 b, also finding hints for the presence of CO2 and CH4 that need to be confirmed by further observations.

Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei (FGG) of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain).