TOI-1670 b and c: An Inner Sub-Neptune with an Outer Warm Jupiter Unlikely to Have Originated from High-eccentricity Migration

Tran, Quang H.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Gandolfi, Davide; Persson, Carina M.; Fridlund, Malcolm; Palle, Enric; Nowak, Grzegorz; Deeg, Hans J.; Luque, Rafael; Livingston, John H.; Kabáth, Petr; Skarka, Marek; Šubjak, Ján; Howell, Steve B.; Albrecht, Simon H.; Collins, Karen A.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Van Eylen, Vincent; Grziwa, Sascha; Goffo, Elisa; Huang, Chelsea X.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Karjalainen, Marie; Karjalainen, Raine; Knudstrup, Emil; Korth, Judith; Lam, Kristine W. F.; Latham, David W.; Levine, Alan M.; Osborne, H. L. M.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Redfield, Seth; Ricker, George R.; Seager, S.; Serrano, Luisa Maria; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Winn, Joshua N.
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The Astronomical Journal

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We report the discovery of two transiting planets around the bright (V = 9.9 mag) main-sequence F7 star TOI-1670 by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. TOI-1670 b is a sub-Neptune ( ${R}_{{\rm{b}}}={2.06}_{-0.15}^{+0.19}$ R ⊕) on a 10.9 day orbit, and TOI-1670 c is a warm Jupiter ( ${R}_{{\rm{c}}}={0.987}_{-0.025}^{+0.025}$ R Jup) on a 40.7 day orbit. Using radial velocity observations gathered with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith telescope and HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we find a planet mass of ${M}_{{\rm{c}}}={0.63}_{-0.08}^{+0.09}$ M Jup for the outer warm Jupiter, implying a mean density of ${\rho }_{c}={0.81}_{-0.11}^{+0.13}$ g cm-3. The inner sub-Neptune is undetected in our radial velocity data (M b < 0.13 M Jup at the 99% confidence level). Multiplanet systems like TOI-1670 hosting an outer warm Jupiter on a nearly circular orbit ( ${e}_{{\rm{c}}}={0.09}_{-0.04}^{+0.05}$ ) and one or more inner coplanar planets are more consistent with "gentle" formation mechanisms such as disk migration or in situ formation rather than high-eccentricity migration. Of the 11 known systems with a warm Jupiter and a smaller inner companion, eight (73%) are near a low-order mean-motion resonance, which can be a signature of migration. TOI-1670 joins two other systems (27% of this subsample) with period commensurabilities greater than 3, a common feature of in situ formation or halted inward migration. TOI-1670 and the handful of similar systems support a diversity of formation pathways for warm Jupiters.
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