TOI-2109: An Ultrahot Gas Giant on a 16 hr Orbit

Wong, Ian; Shporer, Avi; Zhou, George; Kitzmann, Daniel; Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Tan, Xianyu; Tronsgaard, René; Buchhave, Lars A.; Vissapragada, Shreyas; Greklek-McKeon, Michael; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Ahlers, John P.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Furlan, Elise; Howell, Steve B.; Bieryla, Allyson; Heng, Kevin; Knutson, Heather A.; Collins, Karen A.; McLeod, Kim K.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Peyton; Calkins, Michael L.; de Leon, Jerome P.; Esparza-Borges, Emma; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fukui, Akihiko; Gan, Tianjun; Girardin, Eric; Gnilka, Crystal L.; Ikoma, Masahiro; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kielkopf, John; Kodama, Takanori; Kurita, Seiya; Lester, Kathryn V.; Lewin, Pablo; Marino, Giuseppe; Murgas, Felipe; Narita, Norio; Pallé, Enric; Schwarz, Richard P.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Tamura, Motohide; Watanabe, Noriharu; Benneke, Björn; Ricker, George R.; Latham, David W.; Vanderspek, Roland; Seager, Sara; Winn, Joshua N.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Fong, William; Huang, Chelsea X.; Mireles, Ismael; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Shiao, Bernie; Noel Villaseñor, Jesus
Bibliographical reference

The Astronomical Journal

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12
2021
Description
We report the discovery of an ultrahot Jupiter with an extremely short orbital period of 0.67247414 ± 0.00000028 days (~16 hr). The 1.347 ± 0.047 R Jup planet, initially identified by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, orbits TOI-2109 (TIC 392476080)-a T eff ~ 6500 K F-type star with a mass of 1.447 ± 0.077 M ☉, a radius of 1.698 ± 0.060 R ☉, and a rotational velocity of $v\sin {i}_{* }=81.9\pm 1.7$ km s-1. The planetary nature of TOI-2109b was confirmed through radial-velocity measurements, which yielded a planet mass of 5.02 ± 0.75 M Jup. Analysis of the Doppler shadow in spectroscopic transit observations indicates a well-aligned system, with a sky-projected obliquity of λ = 1.°7 ± 1.°7. From the TESS full-orbit light curve, we measured a secondary eclipse depth of 731 ± 46 ppm, as well as phase-curve variations from the planet's longitudinal brightness modulation and ellipsoidal distortion of the host star. Combining the TESS-band occultation measurement with a K s -band secondary eclipse depth (2012 ± 80 ppm) derived from ground-based observations, we find that the dayside emission of TOI-2109b is consistent with a brightness temperature of 3631 ± 69 K, making it the second hottest exoplanet hitherto discovered. By virtue of its extreme irradiation and strong planet-star gravitational interaction, TOI-2109b is an exceptionally promising target for intensive follow-up studies using current and near-future telescope facilities to probe for orbital decay, detect tidally driven atmospheric escape, and assess the impacts of H2 dissociation and recombination on the global heat transport.
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Exoplanets and Astrobiology

The search for life in the universe has been driven by recent discoveries of planets around other stars (known as exoplanets), becoming one of the most active fields in modern astrophysics. The growing number of new exoplanets discovered in recent years and the recent advance on the study of their atmospheres are not only providing new valuable

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