A detailed analysis of the Gl 486 planetary system

Caballero, J. A.; González-Álvarez, E.; Brady, M.; Trifonov, T.; Ellis, T. G.; Dorn, C.; Cifuentes, C.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Bean, J. L.; Boyajian, T.; Rodríguez, E.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Abia, C.; Amado, P. J.; Anugu, N.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Davies, C. L.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, F.; Ennis, J.; Espinoza, N.; Farrington, C. D.; López, A. García; Gardner, T.; Hatzes, A. P.; Henning, Th.; Herrero, E.; Herrero-Cisneros, E.; Kaminski, A.; Kasper, D.; Klement, R.; Kraus, S.; Labdon, A.; Lanthermann, C.; Le Bouquin, J. -B.; González, M. J. López; Luque, R.; Mann, A. W.; Marfil, E.; Monnier, J. D.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Pallé, E.; Pedraz, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reffert, S.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Schaefer, G.; Schweitzer, A.; Seifahrt, A.; Setterholm, B. R.; Shan, Y.; Shulyak, D.; Solano, E.; Sreenivas, K. R.; Stefánsson, G.; Stürmer, J.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tal-Or, L.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Vanaverbeke, S.; von Braun, K.; Youngblood, A.; Zechmeister, M.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R⊕ and 3.0 M⊕. It is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets.
Aims: To prepare for future studies, we aim to thoroughly characterise the planetary system with new accurate and precise data collected with state-of-the-art photometers from space and spectrometers and interferometers from the ground.
Methods: We collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X at the 8.1 m Gemini North telescope and CARMENES at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed near-infrared interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes (AstroLAB, LCOGT, OSN, TJO). This extraordinary and rich data set was the input for our comprehensive analysis.
Results: From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486 at θLDD = 0.390 ± 0.018 mas. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius R* = 0.339 ± 0.015 R⊕. We also measure a stellar rotation period at Prot = 49.9 ± 5.5 days, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 A) flux informed by new Hubble/STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Moreover, we imposed restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or sub-stellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at Rp = 1.343−0.062+0.063 R⊕ and Mp = 3.00−0.12+0.13 M⊕, with relative uncertainties of the planet radius and mass of 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) observations.
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