Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: We investigated the presence of planetary companions around the nearby (7.6 pc) and bright (V = 9 mag) early-type M dwarf Gl 514, analysing 540 radial velocities collected over nearly 25 yr with the HIRES, HARPS, and CARMENES spectrographs.
Methods: The data are affected by time-correlated signals at the level of 2-3 m s−1 due to stellar activity, which we filtered out, testing three different models based on Gaussian process regression. As a sanity cross-check, we repeated the analyses using HARPS radial velocities extracted with three different algorithms. We used HIRES radial velocities and Hipparcos-Gaia astrometry to put constraints on the presence of long-period companions, and we analysed TESS photometric data.
Results: We find strong evidence that Gl 514 hosts a super-Earth on a likely eccentric orbit, residing in the conservative habitable zone for nearly 34% of its orbital period. The planet Gl 514b has minimum mass mb sin ib = 5.2 ± 0.9 M⊕, orbital period Pb = 140.43 ± 0.41 days, and eccentricity eb = 0.45−0.14+0.15. No evidence for transits is found in the TESS light curve. There is no evidence for a longer period companion in the radial velocities and, based on astrometry, we can rule out a ~0.2 MJup planet at a distance of ~3-10 astronomical units, and massive giant planets and brown dwarfs out to several tens of astronomical units. We discuss the possible presence of a second low-mass companion at a shorter distance from the host than Gl 514 b.
Conclusions: Gl 514 b represents an interesting science case for studying the habitability of planets on eccentric orbits. We advocate for additional spectroscopic follow-up to get more accurate and precise planetary parameters. Further follow-up is also needed to investigate the presence of additional planetary signals of less than 1 m s−1. Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A187
Our goal is to study the processes that lead to the formation of low mass stars, brown dwarfs and planets and to characterize the physical properties of these objects in various evolutionary stages. Low mass stars and brown dwarfs are likely the most numerous type of objects in our Galaxy but due to their low intrinsic luminosity they are not so
The search for life in the universe has been driven by recent discoveries of planets around other stars (known as exoplanets), becoming one of the most active fields in modern astrophysics. The growing number of new exoplanets discovered in recent years and the recent advance on the study of their atmospheres are not only providing new valuable