Stellar Characterization and Radius Inflation of Hyades M-dwarf Stars from the APOGEE Survey

Wanderley, Fábio; Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne V.; Cao, Lyra; Pinsonneault, Marc; Allende Prieto, C.; Covey, Kevin; Masseron, Thomas; Pascucci, Ilaria; Stassun, Keivan G.; Terrien, Ryan; Bergsten, Galen J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Jönsson, Henrik; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Lane, Richard R.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Majewski, Steven R.; Minniti, Dante; Pan, Kaike; Serna, Javier; Sobeck, Jennifer; Stringfellow, Guy S.
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The Astrophysical Journal

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We present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 48 M-dwarf stars (0.2 M ⊙ < M < 0.6 M ⊙) from the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution H-band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. Our methodology adopts spectrum synthesis with LTE MARCS model atmospheres, along with the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list, to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicities, and projected rotational velocities. The median metallicity obtained for the Hyades M dwarfs is [M/H] = 0.09 ± 0.03 dex, indicating a small internal uncertainty and good agreement with optical results for Hyades red giants. Overall, the median radii are larger than predicted by stellar models by 1.6% ± 2.3% and 2.4% ± 2.3%, relative to a MIST and DARTMOUTH isochrone, respectively. We emphasize, however, that these isochrones are different, and the fractional radius inflation for the fully and partially convective regimes have distinct behaviors depending on the isochrone. Using a MIST isochrone there is no evidence of radius inflation for the fully convective stars, while for the partially convective M dwarfs the radii are inflated by 2.7% ± 2.1%, which is in agreement with predictions from models that include magnetic fields. For the partially convective stars, rapid rotators present on average higher inflation levels than slow rotators. The comparison with SPOTS isochrone models indicates that the derived M-dwarf radii can be explained by accounting for stellar spots in the photosphere of the stars, with 76% of the studied M dwarfs having up to 20% spot coverage, and the most inflated stars with ~20%-40% spot coverage.
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