ARES (High Spectral Resolution) is a coordinated project which attempt to join and consolidate the efforts on instrument developments at high spectral resolution within the IAC. The goal is to launch the scientific programs that the IAC carries out on the search and characterization of exoplanets, in particular Earth-like exoplanets, on the evolution of the stellar populations of our Galaxy and on the field of cosmology and fundamental physics using high-resolution ultra-stable spectroscopy. ARES incorporates specific actions of great impact in the design and development of instrumentation of new generation for astronomical telescope facilities in the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos, and the observatorio de Calar Alto: ESPRESSO@8.2m-VLT, HORuS@10.4m-GTC, HARPS3@2.5m-INT, NIRPS@3.6m-ESO, ANDES@39m-E-ELT, CARMENES@3.5m-CalarAlto, and HRS@10.4m-GTC. The project ARES will allow to carry out technical actions and will provide access to the guaranteed scientific exploitation in : (a) ESPRESSO: will, among other scientific cases, allow the detection and characterization of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around nearby GKM stars of the Southern hemisphere. (b) HORuS: will characterize the chemistry of the stars of the Milky Way. (c) NIRPS: will be particularly efficient in the detection and characterization of low-mass planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the southern hemisphere. The IAC is developing the design of fiber link. (d) HARPS3: will focus on star-planet systems similar to the Sun-Earth system. The IAC is carrying out the design of the rooms of thermal insulation of the spectrograph. (e) ANDES: will study, among other scientific cases, the atmospheres of exoplanets from Neptunes to Earths, including those in habitable zone, with the aim of detecting signs of life on rocky planets. The IAC is participating in the phase A of the design of the visible arm of this spectrograph and the fiber link of the instrument. (f) CARMENES: will search for low-mass planets orbiting M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere, with the aim of finding Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. (g) HRS: to follow the development of the high-resolution spectrograph and high-stability for the GTC telescope envisaged for the coming years.
-The participation of the IAC in the consortium for the design and development of the ultra-stable spectrograph ESPRESSO (Pepe et al. 2014, AN, 335, 8) has been been successful. During the first part of 2017 the process of preliminar acceptance in Europe (PAE) of the instrument by the European southern observatory (ESO) will be executed and the instrument will be shifted to Chile for the instalation, first light and first observing tests at the Coudé lab of the 8.2m-VLT telescopes at Paranal Observatory (ESO, Chile). -We continue participating in the development of the laser frequency comb (LFC) where we have demonstrated the short-term repeatability of 2.5 cm/s (Wilken et al. 2012, Nature, 485, 611), reaching approximately 1 cm/s in the more recent calibration tests (Probst et al. 2016, SPIE, 9908, 64).
The 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio in the metal-poor binary CS22876-032
Aims: We present high-resolution and high-quality UVES spectroscopic data of the metal-poor double-lined spectroscopic binary CS 22876-032 ([Fe/H] approximately -3.7 dex). Our goal is to derive the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio by analysing the Li I λ 670.8 nm doublet. Methods: We co-added all 28 useful spectra normalised and corrected for radial velocityGonzález Hernández, J. I. et al.
STEPAR: an automatic code to infer stellar atmospheric parameters
Context. STEPAR is an automatic code written in Python 3.X designed to compute the stellar atmospheric parameters Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and ξ of FGK-type stars by means of the equivalent width (EW) method. This code has already been extensively tested in different spectroscopic studies of FGK-type stars with several spectrographs and againstTabernero, H. M. et al.
Stellar activity analysis of Barnard's Star: very slow rotation and evidence for long-term activity cycle
The search for Earth-like planets around late-type stars using ultrastable spectrographs requires a very precise characterization of the stellar activity and the magnetic cycle of the star, since these phenomena induce radial velocity (RV) signals that can be misinterpreted as planetary signals. Among the nearby stars, we have selected Barnard'sToledo-Padrón, B. et al.
The HADES RV programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XI. GJ 685 b: a warm super-Earth around an active M dwarf
Context. Small rocky planets seem to be very abundant around low-mass M-type stars. Their actual planetary population is however not yet precisely understood. Currently, several surveys aim to expand the statistics with intensive detection campaigns, both photometric and spectroscopic. Aims: The HADES program aims to improve the current statisticsPinamonti, M. et al.
Gliese 49: activity evolution and detection of a super-Earth. A HADES and CARMENES collaboration
Context. Small planets around low-mass stars often show orbital periods in a range that corresponds to the temperate zones of their host stars which are therefore of prime interest for planet searches. Surface phenomena such as spots and faculae create periodic signals in radial velocities and in observational activity tracers in the same range, soPerger, M. et al.
High-resolution spectroscopy of Boyajian's star during optical dimming events
Boyajian's star is an apparently normal main-sequence F-type star with a very unusual light curve. The dipping activity of the star, discovered during the Kepler mission, presents deep, asymmetric, and aperiodic events. Here we present high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up during some dimming events recorded post-Kepler observations, from groundMartínez González, M. J. et al.
HADES RV program with HARPS-N at the TNG. IX. A super-Earth around the M dwarf Gl 686
Aims: The HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES) is providing a major contribution to the widening of the current statistics of low-mass planets, through the in-depth analysis of precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements in a narrow range of spectral sub-types. Using the HARPS-N spectrograph we reach the precision needed to detect small planetsAffer, L. et al.
Tracing the formation of the Milky Way through ultra metal-poor stars
We use Gaia DR2 astrometric and photometric data, published radial velocities and MESA models to infer distances, orbits, surface gravities, and effective temperatures for all ultra metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] 11 Gyr) and that they are expected to belong to the Milky Way halo, we find that these 42 stars (18 dwarf stars and 24 giants or sub-giants)Sestito, F. et al.
Tycho's Supernova: The View from Gaia
SN 1572 (Tycho Brahe’s supernova) clearly belongs to the Ia (thermonuclear) type. It was produced by the explosion of a white dwarf (WD) in a binary system. Its remnant has been the first of this type to be explored in search of a possible surviving companion, the mass donor that brought the WD to the point of explosion. A high peculiar motion withRuiz-Lapuente, P. et al.
A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard's star
Barnard's star is a red dwarf, and has the largest proper motion (apparent motion across the sky) of all known stars. At a distance of 1.8 parsecs1, it is the closest single star to the Sun; only the three stars in the α Centauri system are closer. Barnard's star is also among the least magnetically active red dwarfs known2,3 and has an estimatedRibas, I. et al.
The first super-Earth detection from the high cadence and high radial velocity precision Dharma Planet Survey
The Dharma Planet Survey (DPS) aims to monitor about 150 nearby very bright FGKM dwarfs (within 50 pc) during 2016-2020 for low-mass planet detection and characterization using the TOU very high resolution optical spectrograph (R ≈ 100 000, 380-900 nm). TOU was initially mounted to the 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn ObservatoryMa, Bo et al.
Calibrating the metallicity of M dwarfs in wide physical binaries with F-, G-, and K-primaries - I: High-resolution spectroscopy with HERMES: stellar parameters, abundances, and kinematics
We investigated almost 500 stars distributed among 193 binary or multiple systems made of late-F, G-, or early-K-primaries and late-K- or M-dwarf companion candidates. For all of them, we compiled or measured coordinates, J-band magnitudes, spectral types, distances, and proper motions. With these data, we established a sample of 192 physicallyMontes, D. et al.
The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
The CARMENES radial velocity (RV) survey is observing 324 M dwarfs to search for any orbiting planets. In this paper, we present the survey sample by publishing one CARMENES spectrum for each M dwarf. These spectra cover the wavelength range 520-1710 nm at a resolution of at least R >80 000, and we measure its RV, Hα emission, and projectedReiners, A. et al.
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NIRPS is a next-generation, near-infrared spectrograph that uses adaptive optics and is fed via a fiber link. It is a compact cryogenic Echelle spectrograph, capable of operating alone or in combination with the HARPS instrument. It will have a spectral resolution of 100000 or 75000, and will be installed in La Silla observatory (Chile).
ANDES (ArmazoNes high Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph) is an instrument under study for ESO’s forthcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). The contract to begin design studies for ANDES, formerly known as HIRES, was signed in 2016 by ESO. IAC is one of the more than 30 institutions in the ANDES consortium.
ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed, high resolution, Echelle spectrograph which can be operated with one or up to 4 Unit Telescopes (UTs) of ESO’s VLT.
HARPS3 (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher) is a new version of the succesful HARPS instrument. HARPS3 is an Echelle spectrograph with high resolution (R ~ 115000) and a wavelength range of 380-690 nm. It will be installed in the Isaac Newton Telescope (upgraded and robotized) at the ORM.